1. Equipment debugging
(1) Tool disassembly and assembly The four-sided planer’s knife has two installation forms: one is the spindle with a planer head, and the planer blade is installed on the planer; the other is a smooth shaft, and the knife can be installed on it.
Mounting type knives is much simpler, more convenient and quicker than mounting blades, especially profile processing must use typed knife shafts, so nowadays, the knife-drawing structure capable of mounting typed knives is mostly used. When installing the profile knife, first select the profile knife according to the specific requirements of the workpiece to determine whether the knife edge is smooth, flat, and sharp. It is forbidden to install tools with missing or broken teeth. Assembling and disassembling knives should be equipped with four-sided planing tools, such as special disassembly and assembly wrenches or large open-end wrenches, and do not use adjustable wrenches as much as possible.
When installing, turn off all emergency switches and total electric alarms, open the cover of the four-sided planer, activate the dust removal system related to this equipment, and use a compressed air blow gun to blow away all kinds of shavings and dust in the bin. Open it and need to replace it. Put the special wrench on the tightening nut of the knife shaft, and use both hands to force the knife into the protective cover of the knife sleeve of the knife. When installing, clean the dirt on the cutter shaft first, and at the same time, pay attention to determine the installation direction of the cutter to avoid reverse installation. Tighten the nut and reset the dust cover. When using combined knives, when the size of the existing tool is inconsistent with the parts on the drawing, it is necessary to add shims between several combined knives to adjust the distance between the tool bodies, so that the processed workpiece meets the requirements of the drawing. It is best to use copper sheets for thin gaskets, but other materials (even thin cardboard) can be used instead when conditions are not available. After the tool is installed, when removing the planer or installing the tool, be careful not to damage the tool or the blade. For each change in the width and thickness of the workpiece to be processed, the up and down or left and right positions of the tool need to be adjusted. Therefore, whether it is a vertical or horizontal axis, the four-sided planer can be adjusted up and down and left and right. To change the tool, the auxiliary device needs to be adjusted to ensure the normal cutting of the tool.
① Adjustment of chip breaker: When the chip breaker is adjusted left and right, the working lip of the chip breaker should protrude 2-3mm more than the cutting circle of the tool, and the distance from the cutting edge of the tool is 4mm. When adjusting, loosen the lateral adjustment fixing bolts of the chip breaker frame, move the chip breaker laterally to the required position by hand (2-3mm more protruding than the tool cutting trap), and tighten the fastening bolts. When the chip breaker is adjusted longitudinally, loosen the longitudinal adjustment bolt of the chip breaker and move the chip breaker along the longitudinal direction of the machine by hand. When the chip breaker is close to the 4 mm position of the cutting edge, tighten the fixing bolt. If the adjustment of the chip breaker of the left tool is smaller than the diameter of the cutting circle of the cutting edge, it is easy to cause the left side of the workpiece to produce
(3) Adjustment of the second tool axis (right vertical tool axis)
①Horizontal adjustment: The cutting circle of the planer cutting edge is required to be tangent to the surface of the side rear guide plate. Place an adjusting ruler close to the surface of the rear guide ruler, loosen the locking device of the cutter shaft, adjust the horizontal movement of the cutter shaft with a crank wrench until it just touches the position of the adjusting ruler, and then press the adjusting ruler with your left hand Tightly on the rear guide ruler, turn the right knife shaft back and forth with your right hand, and when you feel )) make frictional contact with the knife ruler, the left and right positions have been adjusted, and finally lock the knife shaft fastening device.
If the cutting circle of the planer blade is lower than the surface of the rear guide ruler on the right side, it will cause the front whistle head on the right side of the workpiece or the width inconsistency over the entire length of the workpiece. On the contrary, if the cutting circle of the cutting edge of the tool shaft is higher than the surface of the right guide ruler, the right side surface of the workpiece will be gnawed behind.
②Up and down adjustment: Up and down adjustment is to change the position of the effective cutting edge of the tool or to set the forming planer at the required position.
The assembly of chip breaker, compression cotton and cutter head is integrated, so it can be moved together with the cutter head. After each tool change, the chip breaker and the compressor are adjusted. When the working width is changed, there is no need to adjust the chip breaker and the compactor.
③Horizontal adjustment of the knife shaft: loosen the lock device of the knife shaft, use the crank wrench to adjust the lateral movement of the knife shaft, after reaching the required position, lock the knife shaft to tighten the device.
④Up and down adjustment of the cutter shaft: Up and down adjustment is to change the position of the effective cutting edge of the tool or to place the forming planer at the required position. When adjusting, use a crank wrench to loosen the knife shaft locking device, observe the high-level figure displayed on the number display, adjust it to the required size, and lock the knife shaft.
(5) Adjustment of the fourth knife (upper axis) The adjustment of the upper axis includes the adjustment of the chip breaker at the front of the axis, the adjustment of the compressor at the back of the axis, and the up and down and left and right adjustments of the upper axis.
(6) The adjustment of each tool auxiliary i planing mother In order to ensure a good surface endurance work quality; and not to consume wood, the appropriate cutting amount must be determined before the workpiece is planed. According to experience, the maximum planing disk for one feed of each knife: the lower surface of the workpiece is 1.5mm, the right surface of the workpiece is 2mm, the upper surface of the workpiece is 1m on 2 days, and the left surface of the workpiece is 6mm.
① Adjustment of the cutting amount of the lower surface: The cutting amount of the lower surface is realized by adjusting the front worktable. In four breads. On the side of the feed inlet, there is a joystick to adjust the front worktable. Loosen the front worktable adjustment handle on the joystick, and move the joystick back and forth to realize the lifting of the front worktable, so that the front worktable is lower than the rear worktable. Then the cutting pith of the lower surface can be adjusted, and the adjustment value is displayed by the scale. After adjustment, tighten the handle.
②Adjustment of the cutting amount on the right surface: The adjustment of the cutting amount on the right surface is realized by horizontal adjustment of the leading ruler (without trimming knife).
On the side of the feed port of the four-sided planer, there is a joystick for adjusting the front guide ruler, relax the adjustment handle of the I guide ruler, move the joystick back and forth to make the front guide ruler move back relative to the rear guide ruler, and the amount of back movement is that the workpiece has a surface The adjusted value of the planing allowance is displayed by the scale. After adjustment, tighten the handle.
③Adjustment of workpiece processing width: Adjust the left tool axis horizontally to make the cutting edge of the left tool axis 1) The relative guide ruler of the circle is the width of the workpiece, and its value is displayed by the digital display.
④Adjustment of workpiece processing width: Adjust the upper cutter shaft vertically to make the upper cutter shaft cut the thickness relative to the worktable, and its value is displayed by the digital display.
(7) The adjustment of the side pressure plate The side pressure plate is used for side guidance and pressing, to prevent the workpiece from laterally jumping due to the action of the vertical knife shaft, and to ensure a good side and jJ daily work quality. When adjusting, loosen the lock lever, move the side pressure plate by hand to connect its surface with the workpiece, and then lock the lock lever. When adjusting, make sure that the guide ruler is tight enough. If the pressure is large, the feed of the workpiece will be easily blocked; if the pressure is small, the pressure of the back plate will be too small or there will be gaps, which will cause roughness on the left side of the workpiece.
(8) Adjusting the side pressure roller The function of the side pressure roller is to keep the workpiece in contact with the guide rail during feeding. The adjustment method is to move the cylinder base by hand so that the cylinder is in contact with the workpiece, and the side cylinder is pressed against the work piece. The spring compression is 2-3mm, and the locking rod of the base is tightened.
(9) Adjustment of the lower support reel
①Adjustment of the front support roller (tooth roller): adjust the adjustment bolt of the front support roller behind the machine tool, so that the reel is 2 -3mm higher than the surface of the worktable.
②Adjustment of the rear support cone (optical singing): adjust the adjustment bolt of the rear support spoke cone at the back of the machine tool, so that the roller cone is 0.05 -0.1 5mm higher than the surface of the worktable.
(10) The pressure of the feeder is adjusted. There are generally three types of feed phonographs, namely, cones, hemp wheels and plastic wheels.
Cone feed is used on the surface of the workpiece to be processed, and the feed force generated by it is very large, but it will press the surface of the workpiece into a more obvious indentation, which needs to be shaved off by the worm during the processing of the upper horizontal knife. If the indentation is too deep, there will be residual marks and the workpiece will be scrapped. Therefore, the pressure adjustment strength of this feed reel must be appropriate. The method of adjusting the pressing force of the feeding mechanism of the two-wheeled car is: Generally, the height of the existing cone of the cone is used when the feeding mechanism is in a free state, and the top of the lower tooth is lower than the thickness of the wood to be processed by 1 -2mm or Half tooth height shall prevail. During the specific operation, the bin cover and each emergency switch can be opened. By helping to press and hold the safety travel switch on the upper corner of the bin cover, the adjuster takes a piece of wood to be processed in his left hand and places it on the four-sided planing table. Compare the lifting height of the first feed magazine. In order to prevent the wood from being pressed by the barrel, the end plane of the wood should be parallel to the end of the barrel and on the outside of the end surface of the barrel, and then activate the feed mechanism lifting button to observe the height of the feed spoke barrel. The teeth on the reel barrel are lower. When the thickness of the wood is half a tooth, it has reached the requirement.
The hemp wheel feed is used when the wood processing allowance is small. Feeding with hemp wheel can reduce the depth of wood indentation, but its disadvantage is that the feed force is not as good as that of cones. The plastic wheel compresses the planed surface of the workpiece.
(11) Adjusting the feeding speed The feeding speed is related to the tree species, cutting cocoons, cross-sectional area, and cross-sectional shape of the work, usually 5-25 m1min. Its adjustment adopts a stepless speed regulator, which can realize the primary adjustment of speed. Attention should be paid to the adjustment, and the adjustment must be made during the feed, otherwise it will cause damage to the governor.
The principle of speed determination is to use low speed when hardwood, large workpieces, wood with high moisture content, large cutting volume, and complex cross-sectional shapes of workpieces, and vice versa.
Fourth, the planer requires two operators, the machine hand stands on the side of the feed inlet, and the upper and lower workpieces are fed block by block. When feeding materials, the insects select the feeding materials according to the material standards at the same time, and pick out the unqualified materials that are obviously too thick or too thin. The assistant worker stands on the side of the discharge port to receive the material and perform quality inspection, and feedback the quality information to the machine operator in time.
(3) Safety operating procedures for four-sided planing
Although the four-sided planer is a relatively safe woodworking machine, it requires the operator to adjust various parts in place and accurately due to its many cutter shafts and complex mechanisms, and to operate according to requirements in order to ensure the safety of the equipment and personnel. The following are the safety technical operating procedures for four-sided planing:
(1) It is strictly forbidden to operate and adjust equipment on the machine other than this machine.
(2) Before processing, check and confirm that all tools are installed firmly and reliably.
(3) No one is allowed to stand directly behind the feed inlet.
(4) It is strictly forbidden to suddenly raise the feeding roller and pressing plate during the feeding process.
(5) All tool adjustments must lock the tool shaft.
(6) It is strictly forbidden to machine non-wood materials.
(7) Tool replacement and equipment maintenance must be carried out after the equipment is completely stopped.
(8) To ensure the safety of the tool, the machining allowance for each tool of the large plane should not be greater than 3mm.
(9) When the incoming material is exposed to the sun, it is strictly forbidden to force the incoming material by smashing the workpiece.
(10) When installing the tool, it is strictly prohibited to use bolts to tighten.